Disney animation often pointed to as the ‘gold standard’ – noticeable in comments on African animations that those refer much more favourably to smooth Disney-style animation than more obviously Afdrican graphioc styles.
Depended on a huge studio of different animation departments. Men did the design and better paid jobs. A large army of low paid ‘girls’ did most of the repetitive drawing and painting that provided the profitability. This gender power imbalance led to gender stereotyping of characters and narratives and is also replicated in much of the contemporary Disney-style animation in Africa and elsewhere.
Early cell animation
- Winsor MCKay 1914 Gertie the Dinosaur was one of the earliest animations made on film. Each drawing was redrawn on each page and captured on film and then projected at a rapid rate. McKay presented his animation as a stand-up show with live narrative. Written text is also included on some of the frames.
- JR Bray Dachshund: introduced the background shot and discovered use of celluloid sheets for layering where only certain elements changed each time.
- Raoul Barre: Dreams of Hercules and Crazy Cat uses write on text.
- Willis O’Brien stop motion animation of a prehistoric world.
- Paul Terry move the background to show movement.
- Fleischer rotoscoping to create realistic movement Clown and ink
- Pat Sullivan Felix the Cat
Traditional Cel animation: to reduce the amount of drawing required each image was constructed using multiple overlaid layers of drawings on transparent sheets of celluloid (cels). In this way, the background scenery for say, Mickey Mouse could be drawn once for use in a scene, while Mickey would be re-drawn multiple times. Typically, an animated feature would require over 100,000 hand-painted cels. These would be photographed one by one onto a painted background using a rostrum camera – a specialised camera used to animate still objects.
Common visual conventions include:
- Use of lines radiating from eye to show noticing something.
- Lines out of mouth for noise
- Dream bubbles.
- Use text screens and build-up text to drive the narrative. These screens move up and down to continue the feeling of movement from the animation.
- Music of different moods and tempo
- Whole screen moves up and down like camera shake. On old films the grit and scratches also flicker to give movement.
Disney animation principles
12 cel animation principles
Developed for Disney from Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnson:
2) anticipation and leading attention, can have multiple levels
3) Staging/exaggeration/sequencing to make things clear
4) straightahead/pose to pose drawing
5) Follow through and overlapping action
6) slow in slow out
8) secondary action
11) solid drawing
- Animator’s survival kit – Widely considered to be the cornerstone book for animators
- The Illusion of Life – This covers the principles of animation in a lot of depth as well as being a valuable insight into classic Disney-style animation and drawing.
- Drawn to Life – Another good book for learning animation and drawing