Is it possible to ‘translate’ community voices on empowerment into short, textless animations for training and advocacy using sketches/photos and an iPad or tablet?
What visual communication strategies do women and men in different communities use?
Which textless visual and narrative principles used by animators and illustrators from different cultures are most effective?
How far can these be adapted using sketches/photos and an iPad or tablet?
What are the limitations of visual communication where text and/or more powerful software are needed?
Much of my professional consultancy work has focused on development of a pictorial participatory methodologies for community-led change. For more details of the GAMEchange methodologies and implementation in different parts of the world see:
Focusing on visual communication potentially enables:
- clarification of complex ideas and concepts
- immediate and memorable communication
- more information conveyed in a much smaller space and time
- resources accessible to all and more equal communication across inequalities of literacy and power
- reduced need for translation across national and international language barriers
The outputs of these participatory pictorial processes have proved extremely powerful in terms of changing attitudes and behaviours of and between participants from communities and development agencies and governments.
Moreover, the potential of visual communication is likely to increase:
- Rapidly growing numbers of men and women in rural as well as urban communities worldwide, particularly youth, now have smart phones and are on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and other national social networks.
- The rapid spread of technology and cheap on-line software and apps potentially enable people in communities as well as staff in development organisations to produce visual information for learning and advocacy.
Women from Jamghoria Sevabrata tribal areas of India draw how they can solve problems with livestock.
Women from ANANDI, India draw their visions for women’s empowerment
Women coffee farmers in Bukonzo Joint, Uganda draw changes in decision-making
A man coffee farmer from GreenHome, Uganda explains challenges and actions on adultery and alcoholism.
BUT THERE ARE ALSO CHALLENGES
‘ the medium may not be the message’
Many of the drawings and role plays are very immediate and expressive – including drawings by people who never held a pen before. But the drawing style and content may be by local availability of particular media (pencils/ biros/ markers, lined/blank/coloured paper, role play props). The participatory workshops are also very time-constrained where the aim is empowerment of participants, not ‘effective’ design. This means that the visual outputs may not do full justice to the messages and meanings they represent.
‘Just pretty pictures by illiterates’
Visual outputs are rarely in a form that is easily communicated to people who were not participating in the process. A lot of the impact of the community-level imagery is lost because lack of visual literacy by people with formal education – ie those in power – mean they often miss the deeper meanings and sophisticated analysis behind the drawings.
Top down ‘professional design’
There is currently a profound gap in development agencies between those who participate in and implement participatory processes on the ground and those employed specifically to design ‘development messages’. Many visual materials produced for development agencies on empowerment and other topics are very standardised in appearance and simplistic in their messages. Their top-down (and often rather patronising) approach means that even important information risks being ignored.
The most ‘professional’ design relies on written diagrams – often in English or French! Large numbers of the most marginalised people – from minority ethnic groups, poorer backgrounds and many women – who cannot read and write and/or do not speak any of the major international languages. Many also do not speak the main national Asian or African languages.
See Development Agency Concept Animations
and links to infographics, logos and emojis
This blog is the product of my work for Open College of the Arts BA degree level 3 ‘Visual Research’, guided by Dr Emma Powell.
VisCom4Dev presents visual research and sources of inspiration in evolution of my own graphic and animation style as ‘translator’ of community voices into animations for training and advocacy. Focusing on concepts of empowerment, gender and leadership from participatory workshops in Asia and Africa, I compare and discuss visual communication techniques employed in:
- drawings and role plays by women and men from poor and marginalised communities – including people who cannot read and write
- work of artists, illustrators and animators producing powerful textless images and narratives with simple line and shape
- evolution of my own iPad ‘translation’ and animation workflow
I suggest creative visual communication and narrative principles that can be applied in some way by anyone, whatever their background and education, using simple drawing tools to democratise communication between communities and development agencies and promote more inclusive, equitable and transparent decision-making and policy.
The evolution and explanation of my research and thinking can be seen in the cumulative set of OCA Visual Research Assignments.
My starting point and rationale for the research can be seen in:
Empowerment and development are highly contested concepts, requiring participation and negotiation of diverse interests and conflicting power positions.
I propose a ‘bricolage’ approach to theory and methodology that enables multiple’creative translations’ of community voices for training and advocacy to provoke questioning and change in different audiences. See:
My visual research starts by developing a ‘bricolage repertoire’ of ideas and inspiration of ‘the possible’ in terms of textless visual communication of concepts of empowerment and gender to adapt in my own translations:
What are community voices saying? visual and semiotic analysis of how people in communities themselves communicate through drawings from participatory workshops in three contexts: India, Pakistan and Uganda.
Animation techniques used by animators working in simplified styles without text in different cultural contexts.
Review of iPad drawing and animation software to identify potential workflows and experiment with very simple animation techniques.
(forthcoming July 2020)
I look at visual narrative principles, particularly use of humour to provoke ‘thinking outside the comfort zone’ and specific requirements of short 60 second animations.
I adapt different animation strategies to produce two or more sets of alternative short animated wordless ‘translations’ (to be confirmed)
‘What happened to my aeroplane?’ women’s empowerment visions and realities in Pakistan
‘How I stopped Drinking’ men’s change stories from Uganda
(forthcoming September 2020)
The final part summarises my research and conclusions and suggests a checklist of questions and prompts for future ‘creative translation’ work that can help other designers aiming to ethically represent voices from the community in advocacy processes.